Types of Research and their Methodology
What is a Research
Research is the systematic and comprehensive study of a particular subject or problem to gain in-depth knowledge about it. Research is done on various topics worldwide by any individual who wants to expand their knowledge base on something. The research includes simply a google search and compound scientific studies. Any effort to look towards the unknown to find an answer is research. There are various types of research; it can be simple and technical based on its subject.
Importance of Research
Research and development chime in sync with science and technology. Research is a kind of exercise for the mind. It helps to build knowledge and enhances the learning ability of an individual. It keeps people aware of the various recent global issues and advancements. It acts as a communication medium for scholars, scientists, authors, experts, and students of any discipline. The different research techniques build a person’s leadership, creativity, analysis, reading, problem-solving, and cognitive abilities. It is an important tool for the success of any business organization or industry. Research can help you find opportunities and methods to help you succeed in your daily life.
These days a lot of informal research starts with a google query, and the result of most of them take you to a Wikipedia page. It is relatively simple to obtain information from an unknown source; what is difficult is to evaluate its credibility.
Requirement of Research
Research is a skill that is necessary for students, scholars, academic professionals, scientists, and many more. Research is required for experiments. It is required for students to help them score better grades in their academic courses. It is mandatory for a student to publish their thesis or research paper to complete their graduation from any university almost all over the world. Scientists and scholars are required to publish their research findings so that any individual can utilize it in the future to explore the topic further. Research is a skill that plays a very crucial role in the development of a person’s individuality.
Types of Research
You take a method to improve your understanding when you want to get data about a specific subject. Different types of research are utilized in different kinds of study out there, but the sort you prefer relies on you.
Classification of research in terms of the type of data being analyzed
Research may be divided into two types depending on the data being analyzed. All other types of research can be broadly categorized into these two types. These types are:
- Quantitative Research
- Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research: Quantitative research is an organized way to gather and analyze information to conclusions. This research technique is used to obtain and evaluate information using a mathematical and statistical approach. It utilizes huge amounts of data from different sources to analyze and find discrepancies in them. It sets out the odds and finds a trend in the data to calculate the conclusion. Quantitative refers to quantity or amount. It is a type of research that involves collecting and analyzing data with the help of statistics, graphs, and tables. It is mostly conducted in social sciences using numerical data and statistical methods.
The data collected on which the analytical study is performed may be in the form of surveys, polls, questionnaires or results of previous experiments. This data is then used to find a correlation in them or a pattern of behavior, which would spread some light on the subject of the research.
Qualitative Research: Qualitative research is an inquiry-related method that enables in-depth knowledge of the problems. This type of research mainly utilized human interactions to get information. It helps in providing insights into a specific issue. It involves the study of behaviors and emotions and other aspects of human psychology which are open to interpretation. Everyone cannot perform it.
Its data comes from a smaller group of sources as compared to quantitative research methods. It relies on the researcher’s experience and skill to analyze and interpret the subjects correctly. It is conducted in the form of interviews, case studies, focus groups, etc. It is mostly descriptive and non-numeric. It can only be explained with the help of words and figures.
Classification of research based on its purpose:
Depending on what stage the research is being performed, it can be categorized into 3 types:
- Primary Research
- Secondary Research
- Tertiary Research
Primary Research: This is the kind of research that is conducted at the beginning of any operation. It is also known as exploratory research as it is performed to explore the topic of the study. It sets the base for all further calculations and analysis. It does not directly contribute to the conclusions of the research. It is the data collection process. It helps in deciding how elaborate the coming steps of the research are going to be.
Secondary Research is performed in the intermediate stages of an experiment or research process. It is also known as Descriptive Research, as it helps describe the problem. It spreads light on the issues faced. Its main purpose is to explain the behavior of trends in the data collected. It involves calculations and data analysis with the help of both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Tertiary Research: The final stage of research is performed to make conclusions of the experiments or study. It can also be termed as Explanatory research as it describes the results or the whole process of the experiment. It builds upon the hypothesis and research previously presented. It is a highly structured approach to study.
Some other miscellaneous forms of research techniques are:
- Basic Research: It is the simplest form of research. Any research which is done with the sole purpose of gaining information and enhancing one’s knowledge is known as Basic research. For example, Google searched about an indigenous species of animals.
- Problem-Solving Research: This type of research is conducted to find the reasons behind an issue or a problem. The sole purpose of this research is to provide the solution of a particular problem. For example: Finding answers to how you can fix a broken motorcycle carburetor.
- Applied Research: This type of research utilizes an individual’s abilities to analyze the data to find a solution. Scientists do this kind of research to analyze their findings and make a conclusion from it. These kinds of research help scientists to make major discoveries. An individual or a group may do it to solve practical problems in the fields of medicine, science, engineering or business.
- Correlational Research: This type of research seeks to find the similarities or differences in two or more sets of data samples or groups without any manipulation. It may or not establish the cause or effects of this data on the said groups.
Advantages of Doing Research:
- Research enables deep learning abilities in an individual
- It eliminates false allegations and theories
- It helps in discovering significant articles related to the research subject.
- Research provides you with the ability to choose sides in an informed way.
- It enables one to discover discrepancies in other authors’ research and published works so you can provide an opportunity to correct them.
- It helps in formulating hypotheses and proof to back them up.
- It helps in analyzing, interpreting, and arranging the collection of data.
- It can be applied to the smallest and biggest projects.
- Research acts as a means of communication among scientists, scholars, and students.
- It allows you to contribute to the betterment of the world.
- Research helps in developing interest in new topics.
- It acts as a medium of learning for individuals all over the world.
- Research helps in finding proof for a presented theory or hypothesis.
Methodology of Research
It is important to follow some pre-defined steps to maximize productivity and minimize any distractions and waste of time and assets. Let us consider the steps involving a successful research process.
Step 1: Identify the topics:
It is very important to understand the topic of your research and the purpose of your research since it will determine the depth and importance of your research. List all the terms and objectives on which the research is to be done. Organize your headings and subheadings so you can perform your data collection process more easily.
Step 2: Outline a plan:
Having a plan will help in performing your research most efficiently. It will make sure you utilize your time in the best way possible. Determine the types of research which you have to conduct according to your subject of study. It is very easy to get distracted from the target of your research if your subject of study is particularly vast. Form a planned outline of the process of your research. Prioritize the topics which need your utmost attention and then form a strategy considering the flow of topics.
Step 3: Organise your data:
This is a very simple yet decisive technique. Collect all the data you find in your research and organize it systematically to make it easier to read and analyze later. Depending on the nature of your experimented data, you can use a notebook or even an excel sheet to organize your data.
Step 4: Investigation:
Now that you have collected and organized your data, it is time to work on this data to find the resolution to your problems. But first, you must make sure that your data is authentic and free of any mistakes. Review the accuracy and legitimacy of your findings so that it doesn’t cause any problems during the analysis.
Step 5: Analysis and Conclusions:
Analyze the data and perform the necessary calculations and interpretations from it. It is very important to correlate your results to the initial motive of your research to make sure you get all the answers you set out to find in the beginning; refer to the list you made if necessary. Review the answers and conclude.
Surely these steps might need some alterations and fine-tuning depending on the complexity of your particular subject of study, but the basic premises remain the same.
Research is an aspect that plays an important role in any industry or operation. Research has found its application in the work of many organizations. With the fast-paced development of technology, it is necessary for the people of any country to keep up with the new techniques which make research more efficient. Research can be applied in all of the departments in an organization. It is utilized in sales, HRM, marketing, management, accounts, delivery, managing inventory, and any other field where there is a possibility of improvement with the help of studying data or behaviors to make relevant theories and conclusions. Research should be encouraged in any organization or operation as it is integral to a person’s day-to-day life.
Students are also encouraged since the very beginning of their learning stages to perform research on various topics on their own. This helps develop their brain and personalities by developing leadership, analytical, and complex problem-solving skills. That is one of the important reasons why almost all schools and universities in the world require presenting research in the form of academic writing like a thesis, dissertation, or research paper. This research has to be performed by the student alone or in a group to graduate from the respective university. It plays an important part in their final grades as well. Therefore an individual must possess the right research skills to survive in the fast-progressing world of technology.
Hope this article helped you in providing clarity about distinguishing various types of research and performing your research more efficiently.